Steps Consider towards Building Structure’s Roof- Prepare Foundation


Foundation is the first step to build something. It may be structure, education,
production, art or anything.
Foundation is the basis of the present to build a golden and powerful future of something.
Here we would discuss with the structural foundation that is counted in our primary need.


The structural foundation is defined as the lower portion of a structure that transmits the load to the earth. Foundation is also known as the substructure of the structure.
Foundation is the general and almost hidden part of a structure and bears all loads with transferring to the earth of the structure.
The strength of the foundation writes the strength’s story of the structure.

Why is it too much important: 

It is well known that foundation is the primary step of a structure. So we can’t believe on the strength of structure that is not having a strong foundation.
All loads are transmitted to the earth via the foundation. Ultimately to keep balanced and safe to a structure is undertaken by the foundation. Future expansion and changes of something will depend on its foundation So that the foundation is too much important for any structure or something.
Foundation Strength

Formation Procedure: 

it is eminent that foundation is the lower portion of the structure and generally covered portion.
The formation process proceeded with the excavation of earth. According to the required foundation's first step to prepare it we have to make dig by an excavation of soil. It will depend on the types of soil that how it would be deeper. The depth of the trench will fill with the foundation material. It may be concrete, steel, wood or combination of material. It will depend on the types of soil and the foundation’s required strength.
Nowadays there is also the availability of facility of ready-made and build-in site foundation.

Make trench -> Laying out cement concrete -> Footings -> Anti terminate treatments -> Brick work up to plinth level -> Laying damp roof up to plinth level
Foundation Procedure

Types of Foundation:

Foundation is used to spread the total weight of the structure over the large area of soil. This is a lower part of a structure called Substructure and the upper part of the structure is called Super Structure. Soil mechanics and rock mechanics are used in designing of foundation (Foundation Engineering).
There are two types of foundation to achieve the required purpose.
1) Shallow Foundation
2) Deep Foundation
The preferred types of foundation will vary with the nature of the soil, which means its hardness and softness, with the purpose of a structure.

Shallow Foundation: 

A shallow foundation is defined as a foundation that is having its depth less than or equal to its width. Foundation is instantly situated below the lowest part of the structure.
Types of Shallow Foundation:
1) Spread footings
2) Combined footings
3) Mat or raft Foundation
Shallow Foundation

Deep Foundation: 

This type of foundation is having its depth is greater than its width. In this foundation, the foundation is placed at a deeper depth of ground level.
Types of Deep Foundation:
1) Pile Foundation
2) Cofferdams
3) Caisson Foundation
Deep Foundation


Load Bearing Structure. It is the most important incorporated part of the structure that transfers the load of the structure to the soil. The section of suitable types of the footing will depend on the following factors:
Factors Affecting:
1) The depth of soil at which safe bearing strata exists
2) The type and condition of the soil
3) The type of superstructure

Types of Footings:

1) Spread Foundation
2) Strip Foundation
3) Isolated Footings
4) Stepped Footings
5) Combined Footings
6) Stepped Footings
7) Mat or Raft Foundation
8) Pile Foundation

1) Spread Footing or Pad Footing:

It is defined according to its name that spread the superstructure load of columns and walls over the larger area. It may be circular, rectangular or square. The spread footing is also called Isolated Footing when it supports to the single column.Pad Foundation

2) Strip Footings: 

It is installed in the form of a strip with the load. Useful in a close alignment of the column and which distributes the weight of load-bearing wall across the wall area of ground and provides additional support to the load-bearing walls.
Strip Foundation

3) Isolated Footings: 

When the footing is supporting the single column, it is defined as the isolated footings. It is also a part of spread footings. It may be square, rectangular or circular.
Isolated Foundation

4) Stepped Footings: 

Such type of footing is used to avoid the metal column to the direct control with soil. It provides protection to the metal column against the corrosion. It looks like the stepwise foundation.
Stepped Foundation

5) Combined Footings:

when two or more than two columns are supported by single footing, it is referred to as the combined footings. It may be rectangular or trapezoidal. When both columns are bearing equal load then it is rectangular and if columns are bearing different load then it is trapezoidal. 
It is used when: 
1) Columns are closed
2) Soil bearing capacity is low
3) When footings can’t be extended
Combined Footings

6) Strap Footings: 

Strap footing is a type of combined footings in which columns are connected to each other with a beam. It is more economical than a combined footing. It is used where allowable soil pressure is high. 
Strap Footings

7) Mat or Raft Foundation:  

It is provided in the soil with a low bearing capacity where structural loads are heavy. It covers the bottom area of the structure. It consists of a dense reinforced concrete slab. It supports the entire column of structure and the RCC slab covers the whole area with a beam. In mat foundation, footings are overlap to each other. Reduce the non-homogeneous settlements of soil.
Raft Foundation

8) Slopped Footings:

In this footing top and side, faces are in slope. The concrete face does not have uniform thickness. Grater thickness at the junction and smaller thickness at the ends. 
Slopped Footings

9) Pile Foundation: 

It is a type of deep foundation that transmit the loads by a vertical member. It is mainly constructed with the material- steel, concrete or wood. It may be ready-made means precast or may be cast-in-site means construction at the site.

Classification of Pile Foundation: 

There is two type of classification of Pile Foundation
1) According to the function
2) According to the material

1) According to the Function:
A) Bearing Pile
B) Friction Pile
2) According to the Material:
a) Concrete Pile
b) Wooden Pile
c) Steel Pile
d) Composite Pile

Bearing Pile:

In this type of pile, loads are transmitted to a hard layer of soil. In bearing pile the excavation is taken place till the hard layer of soil. Transfer a total load of the structure to a hard layer of soil.

Friction Pile: 

Friction piles are used where the soil is soft at a considerable depth. It transmits the load to the soil via friction between soil and piles.

Concrete Pile: 

In concrete pile the material used is concrete. It may be ready-made or cast on the site. It is mainly used where the diameter is 30-50cm and the length is 20-30 m.
Concrete Pile

Wooden Pile: 

Material is wood. Diameter 20-50 cm and length 20times of the diameter of the pile.
Wooden Pile

Steel Pile: 

Steel material is used. Easily driven into the earth. It is having a small cross-section used as a bearing pile.
Steel Foundation

Composite Pile: 

In this type, if the pile foundation is made of two or more materials. As concrete and wood - Used where the water table is above. Pile is made of concrete and the shoe is made of wood.
Composite Pile


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